Wednesday, December 14, 2011

Instructional Design


The emerging of the information are require a new paradigm for the field of instructional design  
( Reigeluth, 1996 ). It must be borne in mind that the design and development of instructional materials for teaching and learning purpose must take into consideration important aspects such as pedagogy, learning theories, ID theories and models and the media employed. Computer technology is able to support many of the principles of constructivist learning. Although the field of instructional design has evolved greatly, it would be meaningless if there are ignored or even worst not practiced by the practitioners.

What is Instructional design?
Montague, Wulfrek and Ellis (1983) highlighted that the best design does not compensate for the lack of skills needed to develop quality instruction. An instruction is a set of events that facilitate learning whilst design means a creative pattern or a rational, logical, sequential process intended to solve problems. Thus, instructional design can be defined as “the systematic process of translating principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials and activities”. However, there are many different definitions for instructional design and all of them are an expression of underlying philosophies and viewpoints of what is involved in the learning process (Siemens, 2002). According to Albion et al., instructional design can be defined as a
Process, a discipline, a science, or reality as below:

How Could Teacher Use These theories in The Classroom

Instructional Design as a Discipline: ID is that branch of knowledge concerned with research and theory about instructional strategies and the process for developing and implementing those strategies.

Instructional Design as a Science: ID is the science of creating detailed specifications for the development, implementation, evaluation and maintenance of situations that facilitate the learning of both large and small units of subject matter at levels of complexity.

Instructional Design as Reality: ID can start at any point in the design process. Often a glimmer of an idea is developed to give the core of an instruction situation. By the time the entire process is done the designer looks back and she or he checks so that all parts of the ‘science’ have been taken into account. Then the entire process is written up as if it occurred in a systematic fashion.

Method of Instruction
An effective teacher is a teacher who can make R & D session effective. As a measure to ensure effective teaching, the teacher will diversify teaching approaches and techniques adapted to the abilities and the environment. Teachers are encouraged to try a variety of new teaching styles, which can attract students even though they are not used and are not happy and comfortable. In this case, there are a number of instructional methods that can and often used by teachers in the classroom. Among them are the methods of teaching lecture or orally.

            Lecturing or teaching orally is a general method is often used by teachers in delivering lessons. This method can be done in a formal, in the long term, highly structured or informal, simple form, using multimedia equipment or use a little student involvement. Teachers play a major role in the classroom and provider knowledge and recourses whistleblowers. Methods of teaching trough teacher can give good reasons:

·         Information can be presented in a way that quickly and directly to students for use suitable particularly in introducing the new title.
·          Effective if the main aim is to convey information but not to develop skills or values.
·         This condition is appropriate if the lesson involve students to use materials or tools use are not available elsewhere suitable for use even without plenty of preparation of completed  facility .

Design oriented generally
There are a few guidelines and suggestions for making teaching and oral lecture more interesting;

   a )  Interesting tone of voice, use facial expressions / mimic facial, body language and make sure that conversations can be heard clearly that teachers to all students in the classroom . 
   b ) Encourage students to submit their own questions or opinions during the class lesson.
   c ) Use multimedia tools , models , hand-out of paper or white board and suitable materials as a teaching tool. It can stimulate student learning.
  d )  Beginning of an interesting lesson is to use methods of induction  and delivery style that is refreshing .
  e )  Strengthening teaching by doing a demonstration in front of the classroom, calling students by name and provide notes during or after the lesson.
f ) Limit the time not more than 2o minutes to speak on an ongoing basis and always adapting teaching to the level of students abilities and interest.
g ) Move around the classroom watching the behavior of students to ensure that they are following the teaching of teachers.

ID For Bahasa Melayu Lesson Plan

Subject:  Bahasa Melayu
Year: 6 Tekun
Number of Students: 32 people
Theme: Culture
Title: Celebration in Malaysia
Date: December  15, 2011

Time: 60 minutes

Objectives: At the end of lessons students can;
i. Pupils can reflect on the experience celebrate them orally.
ii. Read and reflect five key points in oral about the festival in Malaysia.
iii. Pupils could write a short essay about celebrate their experiences respectively by using a compound sentence right.

Learning Outcomes:
1.1 chat about anything related to daily life using words, phrases, sentences, pronunciation, and tone  intonation  appropriate.

Level 1
(i) to chat about anything experienced den heard using appropriate language.
5.1 Reading into words and sentences with correct pronunciation and intonation
and understand the passage read.
Level 2
(i) to read a variety of sentences with emphasis on intonation  based on punctuation.
8.2 Develop and write a single sentence in a compound sentence writing text on the subject.

Level 3
 (i) provide a paragraph by using single sentences and sentences compound based on a given topic.

Language Skills: Skills speaking, writing and listening.
Language System: A system of spelling, a single sentence and compound sentence, a reference and intonation .
Knowledge: Malay Language, Culture
Value: Arts, appreciate, respect and to appreciate.
Value-added skills (KBT)
Thinking Skills: Making a difference, creating an inference, and categorize  skills.
Study Skills: Receives information, processing and reporting.
Intelligence various: Kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, naturalist and emotions.
Existing knowledge: Pupils can describe the knowledge and experience of the festival available in Malaysia by way of dialogue and construct sentences using simple sentences.
BBB: Power point, exercise books and tools write.

As a result of the teaching of ID show that learning is very important. These results also show that the emphasis on ID theories, models and learning theories in the design of instructional materials is important because it gives more meaning to students' learning. As such, educators and trainers need to take to the principles of ID in developing teaching and learning plans.

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